Extrasolar planets

For some time we have been dealing in astronomy with extrasolar planets, or planets outside the solar system. One of the first planets discovered via Doppler spectroscopy was the planet 55 Cancri b, a large gas planet belonging to Jupiter-like gas planets. This discovery was made by Marcy and Butler, two astronomers conducting research already in the 90s of the twentieth century. Wolf 1061 c planets are recently discovered. Wolf 1061 c is a terrestrial type planet circling around the star Wolf 1061 at a distance of 14 light years. Another interesting planet is Tau Ceti e, in the constellation of a whale at a distance of 12 light years. Another planet is Kepler 438 b in the constellation Lyra at a distance of 472.7 light years and it is a planet with the largest known index of Earth similarity (ESI - earth similarity index). Most planets are currently being discovered through transit, but spectroscopy is still an important tool in finding planets. All terrestrial planets discovered in a temperate zone are larger than Earth, the planet Kepler 438 b is the closest to Earth in terms of diameter, which is only 10% larger than the diameter of the Earth. Planets are classified in terms of similarity to planets in the solar system, but as the research progressed, completely new types of planets were discovered, such as hot Jowiesze (hot Jovian), Superziem (superearth) and probably so called aquatic worlds, covered entirely by the ocean. Discovering planets can be an interesting and rewarding activity, just like browsing recently created catalogs with the parameters of already discovered planets. Here are some links to these types of sites


Open exoplanet catalogue

Exoplanet archive

Only in our galaxy there are billions of planets, including millions of terrestrial planets, and planets in a temperate zone similar to our planet. The nearest planets may already be in the adjacent stellar system in the Proxima Centauri system, the rocky planets are probably circling. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf of low mass and low temperature connected by gravity with two other stars Alpha Centauri and smaller Beta Centauri, so it is the closest triple star system. There are exploration programs to discover Earth-like planets there.


A very large number of planets from which there is an unconfirmed signal, waiting for a signal re-confirming through the transit of the presence of the planet, these are tangles. planets of the candidate. This number increases systematically but on the other hand these planets are already confirmed planets and they reduce the number of waiting planets. In the past, the construction of spectroscopes and other devices for the study of the sky did not allow observation of the stars' coverings on the planets, because their sensitivity was insufficient. Currently, the situation is so good that an increasing number of branches can provide data without involving exorbitant sums, because the price of the equipment needed to search for planets remains at a certain level, but its technological advancement is growing rapidly.

Tranzyt planety na tle tarczy gwiazdy

Wykrywanie przez spektroskopię dopplerowską

Space is an extremely interesting place, its observation gives the opportunity to work out the concept of the surrounding universe, it is a wider reality that is not perceived in everyday life, despite the fact that cosmic processes establish principles of life on Earth and have enormous significance on us as people. Extra-solar planets (exoplanets) have now been given the entire system of their designations. In general, planets are specifically designated for the discovery method and, for example, planets discovered by microlensing begin with the name OGLE, others such as Kepler - from the Kepler space telescope, or GJ, or KOI. They are marked with subsequent letters in the order of their discovery starting with "b", because the large letter is reserved for the star itself. The first mention of the potential detection of the planet took place already in the first half of the twentieth century, but the data received could not be confirmed until the spectroscopic data was obtained. An interesting planetary system is the GJ 667 C system, where as many as four planets orbit in a zone of moderate temperatures, i.e. liquid water. the system itself is a triple star system in the constellation Scorpio (22.2 light years from Earth). Images of planets are also obtained through imaging, a coronograph is used for this purpose, however, direct observation (imaging) is possible relatively rarely under certain conditions such as the large distance from the star and the size of the planet itself. Another interesting system is the HD 10180 system, it consists of up to nine planets, with two still waiting for confirmation, it contains one planet in the liquid water zone. It is the most widely known planetary system outside the solar system, in which there is a star very similar to the Sun. The system is located 39.4 parsecs, or 128.5 light years from Earth.

Wykrywanie przez mikrosoczewkowanie grawitacyjne

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